Keith Porter et. al. (US Geological Survey [USGS] 2011)
Study evaluating the ARkStorm: the Atmospheric River 1,000-year event (similar to the storms and resulting floods of 1861 and 1862). As compared with the severe earthquake scenario “Great ShakeOut”, the flood impact is projected to be just as likely to occur and could cost on the order of $725 billion, which is nearly 3 times the loss.
US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 2018
Estimates that climate-related disasters cost the US $306B in 2017.
Multihazard Mitigation Council (The National Institute of Building Sciences 2017)
Proactive management is key. Evaluation of 23 years of federally funded mitigation grants and finding that the nation can save $6 in future disaster costs for every $1 spent on hazard mitigation.